Graham Number: Understanding on the Term Benjamin Graham’s Number


All these three terms are different and one should not get confused among them while studying any company. The liabilities side of the balance sheet may also not be correctly reflected. Contingent liabilities are not included in the calculation of book value. Also, adequacy of provisions, if any, is a subjective estimate in many cases. Investors may please refer to the Exchange’s Frequently Asked Questions issued vide circular reference NSE/INSP/45191 dated July 31, 2020 and NSE/INSP/45534 dated August 31, 2020 and other guidelines issued from time to time in this regard.

It could be external factors such as economic slowdown, weak global cues, sectoral issues or an issue with the company itself. The book value of a company represents the net asset value (total assets – total liabilities) of a company. Mathematically, it is the sum of all the tangible assets, i.e., equipment and property owned by the company, cash holdings, inventory on hand minus all liabilities. The information contained on the Website may have been obtained from public sources believed to be reliable and numerous factors may affect the information provided, which may or may not have been taken into account. The information provided may therefore vary from information obtained from other sources or other market participants. Any reference to past performance in the information should not be taken as an indication of future performance.

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It can be used in conjunction with other metrics like Discounted Cash Flow and Price-to-earnings ratio to reach a somewhat concrete view of an organisation’s potential. The key advantage of the PB Ratio is that it gives an easily understandable position of the company’s valuation with respect to its net worth and it is more stable. As described earlier in the balance sheet section, Net Worth is the sum of all liabilities deducted from the sum of all available assets. It is also referred to as Book Value or Shareholder’s Equity. Higher the EPS or EPS growth implies that the company is able to generate a higher profit per share from their business/operations. However, the business of lending is inherently risky, and being a stakeholder in such a business is even more so.

It helps you know if a company is undervalued, overvalued or fairly priced compared to the book value of its assets. “Book Value” as the name suggests, is the value of the Company as per its “Books” i.e. its balance sheet. It is the value that a company’s shareholders would receive after the company liquidates all its assets and satisfy all its short-term and long-term liabilities. Theoretically, the book value of a company is the difference between the value of its total assets and total liabilities, therefore, it is also called “Net Asset Value” and “Shareholder’s Equity”. The book value doesn’t take into account the value of intangible assets like patents and goodwill; therefore, their value is subtracted while calculating Book Value. The book value per share is a calculation that takes into account the total equity available to common shareholders versus the number of shares outstanding.

First, investors will pay a premium above the book value if the company is expected to generate enough earnings in the future. Book Value Per Share will help investors in deciding whether the company is undervalued or overvalued. Owners’ capital of a big company is by share capital received from all the shareholders. Ratios like ROE and P/B interact in very interesting ways and ROE is a wonderful companion ratio for P/B. Return on equity measures the amount of net income earned in comparison to total shareholder’s equity. A value investor should not get tempted if a stock with a low P/B ratio is identified.

The equity available to common shareholders is the difference between the total equity balance of the company and preferred equity. Needless to mention that undervalued stocks are like a four-leaf clover for stock market investors. The calculation of book value per share of a company is based on the common stockholders’ equity, while the preferred stock is excluded from the value of equity. The exclusion is because preferred stockholders are given preference over common stockholders in case of company’s liquidation.

Book Value Per Share = Shareholder’s equity ÷ No. of shares outstanding

Any organisation reports its Balance Sheet quarterly or annually. Therefore, investors remain in the dark about the book value of an organisation in the in-between periods. Basing decisions on past figures can lead to inappropriate analysis. Thence, if this company were to be liquidated on 31st March 2020, all its shareholders would be entitled to receive a portion of Rs. 160,000, according to their stake in that organisation. Book value is calculated by taking the aggregate value of all its assets and deducting all the liabilities from it.

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The price-to-book ratio (P/B Ratio) is a ratio used to compare a stock’s market value to its book value. Find out how this ratio is calculated and how you can use it to evaluate a stock. The PBV is most relevant for firms that are close to liquidation or bankruptcy. Now the equity share holders are treated the owner shareholder of a company only and book value of a share means value of equity share. Do you have difficulty in understanding book value of a company share?

P/B Ratio: Price-to-book Ratio Meaning

Thus BVPS is one of the min parameters in taking an investment decision. Book Value in common usage in share market investment analysis generally means Book Value of a share or Book Value Per Share. That means it is the answer we get by dividing the total Shareholder Equity by total number of shares. Book value does not provide a true picture of the companies that entails excessive debt levels and sustained losses. High debt levels can inflate a company’s liabilities to the point where it can substantially offset the book value of its hard assets, thereby artificially creating a high P/B ratio that understates the value of its assets. Also, companies with a series of losses can generate a negative book value and therefore becomes meaningless.

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Aditya Birla Capital Group is not liable for any decision arising out of the use of this information. Book Value per share is calculated using historical costs, and unlike market value per share, it does not reflect the actual market value of the company’s share. Looking into the book value will also tell you about the company’s internal issues. If a company has faulty assets, then a significant part of earnings might get diluted in repairing and maintaining such assets. Investment experts and renowned investors can speed up the process, but individual investors have nothing but themselves, and an individual alone cannot influence the whole market.

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If the book value per share gets increased, the stock becomes more valuable. The stock price will also rise in the market if a company’s share price goes below its book value per share, giving rise to an opportunity for making risk-free profits. But if the stock holds negative book value, then it represents a company’s liabilities are more than its assets, resulting in balance sheet insolvency. The stocks mentioned in this article are not recommendations. Please conduct your own research and due diligence before investing. Investment in securities market are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing.


The Graham number is also not advised to be used in isolation. Investment decisions should be comprehensive, and other factors such as management quality, sector analysis, and the overall financial health of the target company should also be kept in mind. So when the company shuts down, shareholders will get Rs. 150 per share.

There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data. Below accounts are used for other internal purposes and should not be used to transfer money to Upstox. Simple, we subtract the Rs. 20 I owe to my friend from the Rs. 100 I own in stock.

Example of Book Value per share

The book value per bvps full form in share market of INR 100 means that if Wafira Ltd. is liquidated today, it will leave a profit of INR 100 per share.

And if you want to get a sense of how big returns could be, see our list of multibagger stocks here… Equitymaster has a screener which can help you find high growth companies. You can find High/Low PB Value stocks on Equitymaster’s Stocks screener.

If investors find that the company’s book value per share has increased, its stocks become more valuable. That being said, book value works best for companies that have considerable fixed assets and investments at their disposal. For companies engaged in the IT sector, most of the assets are in intangible form. Since book value excludes the value of intangible assets, the value of the company may not be correct. When trading in stocks, it is always good to evaluate a company and its performance before you invest. This helps you to understand whether you are backing the winning horse.

The book value per share, when compared to the current market value per share, can provide insight into how a company’s stock is valued. The book value refers to the amount the shareholders would receive if the company were to shut down immediately, liquidate, and pay off all its liabilities. The book value is calculated by subtracting the company’s total liabilities from its total assets. Intangible assets such as patents, customer lists, copyrights, brand recognition, and goodwill are not included in the balance sheet.

So, the companies having a greater portion of intangible assets will see an optically higher PB ratio than those having equal amounts of tangible assets. Let’s take a company named ABC limited whose share is trading at Rs. 6 per share and there are 100 outstanding shares. Viewing a stock chart helps in understanding the movement and performance of the stock over several time intervals. A stock chart assists in assessing the previous returns provided by that particular stock over numerous time frames, starting with the daily movement and extending all the way back, to the listing of the stock on the exchange. There are many types of charts used for any analysis and the most widely used charts are Line Chart, Bar Chart, Candlestick Chart and the least used, point and figure chart. For better understanding, these charts are explained in detail in the technical analysis section.


Stock price is a representation of a company’s valuation on a per unit basis, and what the investors are willing to pay, to own a portion of that company. Face value is similarly essential to young entrepreneurs who are beginning to form a company. The capitalization goal is conveniently optimized if the company sets a valuation for each stock delivered.

It may be a value trap rather than a value opportunity as companies’ assets can be treated differently in different industries. The price-to-book value shows whether a share is undervalued or overvalued. On the other hand, book value per share gives you the value compared with its market value per share. It can reduce liabilities using its profits; resultant, its common equity and book value per share will increase. In today’s blog, we deep dive into what is book value of a share, what it indicates, and its role for investors.

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